November IN USARPAC HISTORY




1 - 1941 - World War II - Japanese Combined Fleet changes radio code.

1 - 1943 - World War II - Alaska becomes a separate theater of operations.

More: Alaska Defense Command is renamed Alaskan Department and comes under direct control of the War Department.

1 - 1950 - Korean War - The 1st Cavalry Division becomes the first U.S. unit to encounter the Chinese in North Korea.

More: Some 20,000 Chinese troops attack the 8th Cavalry Regiment at Unsan and practically destroy it. In the 1st Battalion, 265 of its 800 men are killed or captured. In the 3rd Battalion, 600 of its 800 men become casualties. The 5th Cavalry Regiment also suffers heavily trying to rescue the hard-hit 8th Cavalry. The 8th has to be pulled out of combat and rebuilt. As suddenly as they had appeared, the Chinese disappeared back into the mountains. The U.N. forces, stunned by the early November attack, moved forward cautiously.

1 - 1991 - Wheeler Air Force Base is transferred back to the Army and redesignated Wheeler Army Air Field.

2 - 1942 - World War II - During the Battle of Guadalcanal, two 155mm gun batteries (one Army, one USMC) arrive and emplace at Lunga Point. This is the heaviest U.S. artillery to reach the island and the first capable of countering Japanese artillery fire effectively.

2 - 1944 - World War II - The 323rd Infantry Regiment, 81st Infantry Division, opens its attack to complete the reduction of the Umurbrogol Pocket on Peleliu but makes little headway. The operation is in support of the 1st Marine Division.


2 - 1966 - Vietnam War - The 199th Infantry Brigade (Separate) (Light) deploys to Vietnam from Fort Benning, Georgia.

More: The brigade later redeploys on October 11, 1970. During its time in Vietnam, it suffers 754 KIA and 4,679 WIA. Four 199th soldiers receive the Medal of Honor: CH (CPT) Angelo Liteky, SGT Richard A. Penry, CPL Michael Folland, and SP4 Kenneth L. Olson.

3 - 1946 - Japanese Constitution, written by General of the Army Douglas MacArthur, is adopted. The Constitution states the emperor was only a symbol and cannot even vote. Article 9 of the new Constitution consists of a "no war" clause.

5 - 1899 - Philippine Insurrection - Five soldiers of Battery G, 3rd Artillery, rout 40 Filipinos in a sharply fought battle at Calulut on Luzon. One of these five soldiers, SGT Clarence M. Condon, later receives the Medal of Honor for this action.

5 - 1941 - The new American decryption device, Magic, intercepts six Japanese "deadline" messages sent to their negotiators to complete negotiations with the Americans by November 25.

6 - 1942 - World War II - GHQ, Southwest Pacific Area deploys to Port Moresby, New Guinea, from Australia. 

7 - 1950 - Korean War - The first elements of the 3rd Infantry Division land at Wonsan, North Korea.

8 - 1943 - World War II - The 148th Infantry Regiment of the 37th Infantry Division lands on Bougainville. 

10 - 1941 - World War II - Japan's peace emissary, Admiral Nomura, presents Secretary of State Cordell Hull with Japan's Proposal "A" to keep peace in the Pacific. Japan will not withdraw from the Tripartite Pact with Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy.


11 - 1899 - Philippine Insurrection - The 33rd Volunteer Infantry defeats a force of 1,200 Filipinos at San Jacinto on Luzon.

More: The Americans suffer seven KIA and 15 WIA. Filipino losses are 134 KIA. Two days later, Filipino leader Emilio Aguinaldo orders the Filipino army to disband, signaling the beginning of guerilla warfare.

11 - 1909 - Brig. Gen. John J. Pershing is appointed military governor of Moro Province in the Philippines.

11 - 1922 - Wheeler Army Air Field, next to Schofield Barracks on Oahu, is established.

11 - 1941 - World War II - The Coast Guard is place under jurisdiction of Department of the Navy for duration of national emergency.


11 - 1967 - Vietnam War - Task Force Oregon begins Operation WHEELER in I Corps.

More: TF Oregon consists of the 196th Light Infantry Brigade, the 3rd Brigade of the 25th Infantry Division, and the 1st Brigade of the 101st Airborne Division. During Wheeler, TF Oregon is reconstituted as the Americal Division. By year's end, the brigades of the 25th Infantry and 101st Airborne Divisions have been replaced by the 11th and 198th Light Infantry Brigades. With more than 20,000 soldiers, the Americal was the Army's largest division but its three independent, disjointed brigades never completely jelled.

12 - 1940 - World War II - British torpedo bombers launch an attack on the Taranto harbor in Italy.

More: This event causes concern among United States government officials, who fear the same thing could happen to Pearl Harbor. Navy Secretary Frank Knox is advised the Army to improve Pearl's defenses. The same day, Adolf Hitler remarks to Russian President and Commissar of Foreign Affairs Vyacheslav Molotov, "The United States will not be a threat to us for decades-not in 1945 but at the earliest in 1970 or 1980-90."

12 - 1942 - World War II - Naval Battle of Guadalcanal (12-15 November) opens.

More: On the same day, America's greatest ace of World War I, Eddie Rickenbacker, is picked up in the Pacific Ocean after spending 21 days on a life raft. Rickenbacker's Army B-17 crashed in the Pacific and he and the crew spent three weeks on rubber rafts until finally being rescued.

13 - 1943 - World War II - In Burma, the 5307th Composite Unit (Provisional) is activated. The unit is better known as Merrill's Marauders.

14 - 1965 - Vietnam War - The 3rd Brigade of the 1st Cavalry Division defeats three North Vietnamese Army regiments in the Ia Drang Valley. 


14 - 1965 - Vietnam War - The Battle for Landing Zones X-Ray and Albany begins in the Ia Drang Valley.

More: Lt. Col. Hal Moore's 1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry of the 1st Cavalry Division air assaults into LZ X-Ray in the morning and is hit by two full battalions of the of 66th North Vietnamese Army (NVA) Regiment. The understrength American battalion is outnumbered almost four to one. The fighting is savage and by the end of the first day, Moore has lost 27 men killed and 69 wounded, nearly a fourth of his original strength.

15 - 1941 - World War II - Saburo Kurusu and his American wife arrive in U.S. to negotiate with Secretary of State Cordell Hull.

More: Hull, critical of the bowing and always-smiling Japanese, thought they were deceptive.

15 - 1942 - World War II - Naval Battle of Guadalcanal ends. 

15 - 1965 - Vietnam War - During the Battle for Landing Zones X-Ray and Albany in the Ia Drang Valley, C Company, 1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division is almost overrun.

More: It loses 42 Killed in Action and 20 Wounded in Action from its 107-man strength. By the day's end, reinforcements from the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry, and the 2nd Battalion, 5th Cavalry reach the perimeter.

15 - 1995 - IX Corps inactivated

16 - 1941 - World War II - U.S. Navy loses track of Japanese carriers in the Pacific


16 - 1942 - World War II - U.S. Army forces land south of Buna, New Guinea.

More: The U.S. 32nd Infantry Division and the Australian 7th Infantry Division commence attacks against the Japanese beachhead at Buna-Gona on the northern coast of New Guinea.

16 - 1965 - Vietnam War - During the Battle for Landing Zones X-Ray and Albany in the Ia Drang Valley, the North Vietnamese Army (NVA) breaks off contact with elements of the 1st and 2nd Battalions of the 7th Cavalry and the 2nd Battalion, 5th Cavalry.

More: The U.S. casualties from the battle at X-Ray (14 -16 November) are 79 Killed in Action and 121 Wounded in Action. NVA casualties were estimated at about 1,800.

17 - 1965 - Vietnam War - In the Battle for Landing Zones X-Ray and Albany in the Ia Drang Valley, the 2nd Battalion, 5th Cavalry is moving overland from X-Ray to LZ Albany, two miles away.

More: The 2-5th is strung out and inattentive. The North Vietnamese Army (NVA) takes full advantage and in a giant ambush, hits the 2nd of the 5th. The entire battalion is almost overrun. This is prevented by close air support (CAS) and the timely arrival of a company from the 1st of the 5th. American losses are horrendous: Charlie Company, 2-5th, loses 100 men killed or wounded from 108 in the company. The battalion has 60 percent casualties at Albany: 155 Killed in Action and 121 Wounded in Action.

18 - 1901 - Philippine Insurrection - Troop D of the 15th Cavalry and Company L of the 10th Infantry fight off a Filipino attack on a signal corps detachment working on a telegraph line near Manella, Mindanao. Two soldiers are killed and one is missing.

20 - 1941 - Admiral Saboru Nomura and Saburo Kurusu, special Japanese envoys to Washington, present Japan's Proposal "B" to Secretary of State Cordell Hull. Japan agrees to withdraw from Indochina if the U.S. agrees to restore oil trade with Japan. 

20 - 1943 - World War II - Naval, Marine, and Army forces land on Tarawa and Makin, Gilbert Islands.

More: The 27th Infantry Division conducts an amphibious assault on Makin Atoll. This is one of 87 amphibious landings made in the Pacific by the Army during World War II.

21 - 1970 - Vietnam War - A combined U.S. Army and Air Force Special Operations Force raids the Son Tay Prisoner of War (POW) camp in North Vietnam. Although brilliantly staged and executed, the raiders find that the American POWs have been removed from the camp before the raid, thus no POWs are freed. 

23 - 1899 - Philippine Insurrection - The 1st Tennessee Volunteer Infantry Regiment is mustered out of service at San Francisco.

More: This is the last of the state volunteer units to leave the Philippines. The Regular Army and volunteers who enlisted specifically to serve in the Philippines (federal as opposed to state volunteers) will continue the fighting in the Philippine Insurrection.

23 - 1943 - World War II - Tarawa Atoll, and Makin in the Gilbert Islands, are declared secured.

More: The commanding general of the 27th Infantry Division, Maj. Gen. Ralph Smith reports that he has accomplished his mission of capturing Makin Atoll. "Makin taken," reports Smith to Rear Admiral Kelly Turner, commander of the joint Makin-Tarawa force. Army casualties at Makin have been light: 66 killed and 150 wounded in action. The simultaneous Marine assault at Tarawa, on the other hand, has been a bloodbath: 913 killed and 2,037 wounded.

24 - 1941 - Takeo Yoshikawa, a spy at the Honolulu Japanese Consulate, sends a report to Japan on the Pacific Fleet exercises.

More: The American decryption device, Magic, intercepts Yoshikawa's message, but it is not translated until December 16!

24 - 1942 - World War II - Japanese forces land at Munda Point, New Georgia, Solomon Islands.

24 - 1946 - Two-hundred enlisted women arrived in Japan (8225th WAC Battalion) for duty at General Headquarters (GHQ), Far East Command, Tokyo.


24 - 1950 - Korean War - MacArthur starts a final U.N. offensive toward the Yalu River, on the North Korean border with China.

More: At the same time, Chinese delegates arrive at the UN to begin peace negotiations. The following night, the Chinese launch a massive assault which will drive the U.N. forces completely out of North Korea and end any possibility of concluding the war in 1950.

25 - 1941 - World War II - Japanese troop transports, en route to Malaya, are sighted off Formosa.

More: The United States, meanwhile, is about to make a counter offer to the Japanese Proposal "B" (presented to Washington on November 20. The American plan will include a monthly supply of fuel for civilian use, but President Roosevelt receives a leak of Japan's war plan and the news that Japanese troop ships are on their way to Indochina. He "blows up" at the news of a Japanese fleet of 50 ships leaving Shanghai moving south toward the Philippines and the five Japanese divisions seaborne south of Formosa. He decides the Japanese are not sincere in their negotiations and instructed Secretary of State Cordell Hull to drop the counter-proposal. Secretary of War Henry Stimson diary, in writing of the Japanese, notes "the question was how we should maneuver them into the position of firing the first shot without too much danger to ourselves.

25 - 1942 - World War II - The 25th Infantry Division begins deploying to the South Pacific from Hawaii. Its destination is an island called Guadalcanal. 

25 - 1943 - World War II - Naval Battle of Cape St. George.

25 - 1950 - Korean War - The hope of the Korean War being over by Christmas is dashed when some 200,000 Chinese soldiers attack the Eighth U.S. Army on the western side of North Korea.

More: The Eighth U.S. Army consists of approximately 118,000 soldiers in eight U.S. Army and Republic of Korea Army divisions, as well as smaller combat formations provided by other UN countries. The U.S. divisions on the line the night of the 25th of November are the 2nd, 24th and 25th Infantry Divisions, with the 1st Cavalry Division in Eighth Army reserve. Although ill-prepared for the brutal Korean winter and worn-down by months of fighting, Eighth Army had started an end-the-war offensive on November 24. U.S. troops stopped at night; that is when the Chinese chose to attack. Completely surprised by the Chinese onslaught, Eighth Army was stopped in its tracks and began withdrawing from North Korea on November 29.
The attacking forces consist of the 1st Communist China Forces, who attack across the Yalu River with air support from Russian MIG-15 jets - after two weeks, they retreat back into China. The 2nd Communist China Forces attack against MacArthur's weakened center line - UN and South Korean forces retreat back into South Korea. By mid-December, the U.S., ROK and other UN forces had retreated some 120 air miles from the Chongchon River in North Korea to the Imjin River and below the 38th Parallel. This was the longest retreat in American history.

26 - 1901 - Philippine Insurrection - Near Laguna on Luzon, detachments of Companies H and I, 8th Infantry Regiment, are attacked while escorting a supply wagon. Two U.S. soldiers are seriously wounded and two are captured.

26 - 1941 - Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo's First Air Fleet leaves the Kuriles in northern Japan for Pearl Harbor.

More: His fleet has 6 aircraft carriers, 423 planes, 2 battleships, 28 submarines, 2 cruisers, 11 destroyers. Diaries of the 5th Carrier Division of Japan Fleet indicate strict radio silence is followed.

26 - 1941 - Secretary of State Cordell Hull submits a counterproposal to Japan's Proposal "B." The American counterproposal insists that Japan must withdraw first from Indochina and China. 

27 - 1941 - Secretary of War Henry Stimson sends "hostile action possible" warning to Pacific bases. At the same time, Admiral H.R. Stark, Chief of Naval Operations, send a "war warning" message to commanders of the Pacific and Asiatic Fleets.

More: General Short, Commanding General of the Hawaiian Department, issues only a sabotage alert on Oahu. There are no anti-torpedo nets or ammunition for anti-aircraft guns.

28 - 1941 - World War II - Rear Admiral Husband Kimmel, Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, sends the aircraft carrier, USS Enterprise, under the command of Rear Admiral William "Bull" Halsey to deliver Marine Corps fighter planes to Wake Island. 

29 - 1941 - In Japan, Prime Minister Hideki Tojo convinces the Imperial Privy Council to sign documents declaring war on the United States because diplomacy failed.

More: Prior to making the fateful decision, some of the ministers argue that Japan's economy was no match for America's and that the U.S. could launch air raids on Tokyo. The pro-war Tojo declares that the Japanese empire stands on the threshold of collapse or glory and promises that a "united nation will go on to victory."

29 - 1971 - Vietnam War - The Americal Division is inactivated.

More: The famed division spent 1,526 days in Vietnam. Eleven of its soldiers received the Medal of Honor. Total Americal casualties from September 26, 1967 to November 29, 1971 are 17,565 (compared to the 4,050 it suffered in World War II).

30 - 1941 - Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tojo rejects United States proposals for settling the Far Eastern crisis.

30 - 1966 - Vietnam War - Operation FAIRFAX is mounted near Saigon by elements of the 1st, 4th and 25th Infantry Divisions. 


USARPAC MISSION

USARPAC postures and prepares the force for unified land operations, responds to threats, sustains and protects the force, and builds military relationships that develop partner defense capacity in order to contribute to a stable and secure U.S. Pacific Command area of responsibility.

COMMANDING GENERAL


General Vincent K. Brooks Commanding General

General
Vincent K. Brooks

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